ERW Pipe (Electric Resistance Weld)
ERW is produced from individual sheets or continuously from rolls of skelp. ERW is cold formed into a cylinder shape rather than hot formed. Coils of steel are formed by rollers and arc-welded electrically. The seam is then annealed chemically, or post-production via blast furnace, to reduce martensite in weld. An electric current rather than a flame is used to heat the edges of the strip for the fusion weld. ERW is primarily used for gas, water, steam and oil service. Available in 21’ lengths, single random, and double random.
SMLS Pipe (Seamless Pipe)
A solid billet of steel is rotated while a mandrel shapes an interior hole in it, creating pipe. Seamless pipe is widely used in construction, oil refining, and chemical and petro-chemical industries. Seamless pipe is primarily used for gas, water, steam and oil service. Available in single random and double random lengths.
CW Pipe (Continuous Weld)
Heated scalp is pulled through forming rolls and butted together forming a melted seam. No metal is added in the operation. The final rolls reduce the diameter and wall thickness to bring the pipe to it’s finished dimensions. CW pipe is commonly used for water, air, gas, and Steam. CW pipe is generally the lowest cost steel piping material. Available in 21 footers and single random lengths.
DSAW Pipe (Double Submerged Arc Weld)
Steel plate is rolled into a pipe-shape then welded both, from the inside and outside. The welding arc is submerged in flux throughout the process, giving the pipe it’s name. Both inside and outside welds are required and usually performed in separate processes, hence the word “double”. DSAW pipe may not be cold expanded. Produced in double random lengths with square ends or beveled ends for welding. Used in high pressure gas and oil lines.
Pipe with ends cut perpendicular to its axis and incorporating no grooves or threads on either end. This would be the choice for small sizes where socket weld fittings will be used to join pipe to pipe or pipe to fittings. This is also the default end prep for smaller (2” and smaller) if no end prep is specified. Generally be used for the smaller diameters pipe systems and in combination with slip on flanges and socket weld fittings and flanges. Pipe that has a plain end can be cut, threaded, beveled, welded, grooved or pressed in the field or in a fabrication facility as needed.
Pipe beveling is the process by which a plain, square end of a length of pipe is machined down to an angle of 37.5 degrees. Beveling of pipe or tubing is most commonly used to prepare the ends for welding. It can also be used for deburring the cut ends for safety and aesthetic reasons.
Circular threads are cut into each end of the pipe using a series of devices called threading dies, which leave the ends of pipe with an NPT male thread. This is a “tapered thread”, allowing female thread connections or fittings to be screwed onto it.
Roll grooved pipe is created by cold forming a groove by the action of an upper male roll being forced into a pipe as it is rotated by a lower female drive roll. Roll grooved configuration has rounded edges which reduces the available pipe end movement. Roll grooving of pipe removes no metal. Grooved fittings and coupling are then used to connect the pipe to other pipe, fittings and valves.
A groove that is cut into the outside diameter of pipe or fitting near the end. Cut grooving involves the removal of 1/3 of the total pipe wall thickness to provide the lip that engages the coupling housing. Cutting a groove removes less material, to less depth, than threading the pipe. Cut grooving can be completed manually or by using large motorized shop tools. The advent of roll grooving has rendered cut grooving nearly obsolete in general HVAC use.
Coal-Tar Epoxy is a 100% solids coating designed to offer corrosion, moisture and cathodic protection. Coal-Tar Epoxy, noted for its dark black color and tar odor, will typically bond to mill lacquer. This epoxy features the superior water resistance of coat tar epoxies and has the mild “tar” odor and is black in color. Provides excellent chemical resistance and low viscosity. Surface-prep for this coating is less than that of other coatings and it can be field-applied.
Fusion-bond is an epoxy based powder coating that is widely used to protect steel pipe used in pipeline construction, concrete reinforcing rebar and on a wide variety of piping connections, valves etc. from corrosion. It is a fairly inexpensive system and is easy to use in the field. Repairs to the coating can be made very easily and coating of the field joints is simple as well. Fusion bond is widely used and is considered a standard coating for many underground applications.
Pipe galvanizing is the hot-dip process of chemically cleaning, and metallurgical bonding of a zinc coating to the outside and inside of pipe. The weight of the zinc coating must be no less than 1.6 oz per square foot.
Select Nominal pipe size
OD = Outside Diameter of Pipe (inches)
WT = Wall thickness (inches)
ID = Inside Diameter of Pipe (inches)
WP = Working pressure (PSI or Pounds per Square Inch)
V = Volume of Water in 1 foot of pipe (gallons)
W = Weight of pipe per foot (lb/ft)
Ww - Weight of pipe per foot when filled with water (lb=ft)
- Pipe dimensions are according to ASME B36.10M -Welded and Seamless Wrouth Steel Pipe
- Pressure Ratings or Working Pressure (WP) values are based on ASTM A53 Grade B or A106 Grade B Seamless ANSI B31.3, 1977. Allowances for connections and fittings reduce these working pressures by approximately 25%. The allowable working pressures were calculated by the formula in the code for Pressure Piping, ASA B31.1-1955, Section 3, paragraph 324(a).
P = allowable pressure in pounds per square inch (gauge).
D = Outside diameter in inches
t = design thickness in inches, or 12.5% less than the nominal thickness shown in the Properties screen.
C = allowance in inches for corrosion and/or mechanical strength (C=0.05" has been used for all pipe sizes).
Y = a coefficient having values for ferritic steels as follows:
- 0.4 up to and including 900 degrees Fahrenheit
- 0.5 for 950 degrees Fahrenheit
- 0.7 for 1000 degrees Fahrenheit
|Manganese||0.29 – 1.06|
Steel which owes its distinctive properties to elements other than carbon.
Consists of heating the steel either in or near it’s critical temperature range followed by an extended slow furnace cool.
Refers to an edge of a structure that is not perpendicular to the faces of the piece. The angle or inclination of a line or surface that meets another at any angle but 90. Standard is 30 degrees to facilitate welding.
Round solid bar of steel which is pierced to form a seamless tube or pipe.
Denotes lacquered OD finish (instead of bare or galvanized).
Joint between two members aligned approximately in the same plane.
Circumferential weld in pipe fusing the adjoining pipe walls completely from inside wall to outside wall.
Steel which owes its distinctive properties chiefly to the various percentages of carbon. Strong and durable nearly always the cheaper natural choice of pipe.
Process of covering steel with another material, primarily for corrosion resistance.
A method of producing small diameter pipe. A phrase for continuous butt-weld.
Gradual destruction or alteration of a metal or alloy caused by direct chemical attack or by electrochemical reaction.
Pipe with a 35-foot average length.
Most common form of manufacture of pipe.
Gradual destruction of metal or other material by the abrasive action of liquids, gases, solids or mixtures of all.
Fusible mineral material which is melted by the welding arc. Fluxes may be granular or solid coatings. Fluxes serve to stabilize the welding arc, shield all or part of the molten weld pool from the atmosphere, and may or may not evolve shielding gas by decomposition.
Melting together of filler metal and base metal, or of base metal only, which results in coalescence.
Covering of iron or steel with a protective layer of zinc.
Term designates divisions within different types based on chemical or mechanical properties.
Joint between two overlapping members.
Most commonly refers to a very hard form of steel crystalline structure.
Pipe size or wall thickness as specified (not actual). Sizes refer to the approximate ID, even though OD is the fixed dimension.
North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures. The name NPS is based on the earlier “Iron Pipe Size” (IPS) system.
Single progression of a welding or surface operation along a joint, weld deposit, or substrate.
A tube of metal, plastic, or other material used to convey water, gas, oil, or other fluid substances.
Pipe with a 17.5-foot minimum average length.
Reference to wall thickness of pipe such as schedule 40.
Plate of steel or wrought iron from which pipe or tubing is made by rolling the skelp into shape longitudinally and welding or riveting the edges together.
Change of shape or size of a body produced by the action of a stress.
Intensity of the internal, distributed forces which resist a change in the form of a body. When external forces act on a body they are resisted by reactions within the body which are termed stressed.
Measurement of the space within the walls of the pipe.
Process of joining materials by heating until they are fused together, or by heating and applying pressure until there is a plastic joining action. Filler metal may not be used.
A tubular product made out of flat plates, known as skelp, that are formed, bent and prepared for welding.
Stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting permanent set.
American National Standards Institute
American Petroleum Institute
American Standard Association, now ANSI.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Welding Society
American Water Works Association
Butt Weld pipe
Double Random Length
Double Submerged Arc Weld
Electric Resistance Weld
Female Pipe Threads
Inside Diameter of pipe
Iron Pipe Size
Male Pipe Thread
Outside Diameter of pipe
Plain End of pipe
Pounds per Square Inch
Pounds per Square Inch Gage
Schedule (of pipe)
Single Random Length
Thread Both Ends of pipe
Threaded and coupled
Thread One End
Water, Oil, Gas
Working Water Pressure
Extra Strong standard pipe weight, sometimes described as extra heavy (XH).
Double Extra Strong pipe weight, sometimes described as double extra heavy (XXH).
Grades of pipe refer to subsets or divisions within the different types of Seamless and ERW pipes. ‘Grades’ designates mechanical properties such as minimum yield and tensile strength. Grade B is superior to Grade A. Grade has no relevance to ASTM classifications.
Ex: The “A” in A106 does not indicate Grade A pipe.
Though there are at least 10 different methods used in producing steel pipe today, by far the largest percentage of production falls into three categories:
Continuous Weld (CW): pipe is made by pulling heated skelp through a series of forming rollers and butted together forming a seam.
Electric Resistance Weld (ERW): Cold coils of steel are automatically pulled through a series of rollers and arc-welded. This is a cold process. The seam on ERW is annealed, either in a furnace, or chemically.
Seamless: A solid billet of steel is rotated while a mandrel shapes an interior hole.
To distinguish different weights of pipe, it is common to use the Schedule terminology from ANSI/ASME B36.10 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe. For all pipe sizes the outside diameter (O.D.) remains relatively constant. The variations in wall thickness affects only the inside diameter (I.D.). The higher the schedule number is, the thicker the pipe is. Since the outside diameter of each pipe size is standardized, a particular nominal pipe size will have different inside pipe diameter depending on the schedule specified.
A schedule number indicates the approximate value of
Sch. = 1000 P/S
P = service pressure (psi)
S = allowable stress (psi)
List of Schedules:
- Light Wall
- Schedule 10 (Sch/10, S/10)
- Schedule 20 (Sch/20, S/20)
- Schedule 30 (Sch/30, S/30)
- Schedule 40 (Sch/40, S/40)
- Standard Weight (ST, Std, STD)
- Schedule 60 (Sch/60, S/60)
- Extra Strong (Extra Heavy, EH, XH, XS)
- Schedule 80 (Sch/80, S/80)
- Schedule 100 (Sch/100, S/100)
- Schedule 120 (Sch/120, S/120)
- Schedule 140 (Sch/140, S/140)
- Schedule 160 (Sch/160, S/160)
- Double Extra Strong (Double extra heavy, XXH, XXS)
*Note that many of the schedules are identical in certain sizes.
Galvanizing is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, in order to prevent rusting. The term is derived from the name of Italian scientist Luigi Galvani. Although galvanization can be done with electrochemical and electro deposition processes, the most common method in current use is hot-dip galvanization, in which steel parts are submerged in a bath of molten zinc. The value of galvanizing stems from the corrosion resistance of zinc, which, under most service conditions, is considerably greater than that of iron and steel. The zinc serves as a sacrificial anode, so that it protects exposed steel.
Drill Sizes For Pipe Taps:
|Size of Tap||Number of threads per inch||Diameter of Drill|
|1”||11 1/2||1 5/32|
|1 1/4”||11 1/2||1 5/32|
|1 1/2”||11 1/2||1 49/64|
|2”||11 1/2||2 3/16|
|2 1/2”||8||2 9/16|
|3 1/2”||8||3 11/16|
|4 1/2”||8||4 3/4|
Tap And Drill Sizes:
|Size of Drill||Size of Tap||Thread per Inch|
|1 7/64||1 1/4||7|
|1 13/64||1 3/8||6|
|1 11/32||1 1/2||6|
|1 29/64||1 5/8||5 1/2|
|1 9/16||1 3/4||5|
|1 11/16||1 7/8||5|
|1 23/32||2||4 1/2|
As a general rule, fittings with tapered pipe threads (NPT) should not be assembled to a specific torque because the torque required for a reliable joint varies with thread quality. After hand-tight engagement, tighten 2-3 full turns for sizes up to 1 inches for NPT thread fittings. You should have between 3.5 and 6 engaged threads. Any number outside of this range may indicate either under or over tightening of the joint or out of tolerance threads. Most common fault a beginner makes is cross-threading the members and not realizing it. The male thread fitting needs to be aligned with the axis of the tapped hole. Rotation force should gradually increase with tightening. NPT is defined by ANSI/ASME standard B1.20.1. Reference ANSI/ASME B1.20.1-1983 (R1992).
The primary difference between pipe and tubing is how the size is designated. Pipe is designated by a “Nominal Pipe Size” based upon the ID (inside diameter) of the most common wall thickness. Tubing is designated by the measured OD (outside diameter).
In the early 1800s, before the advent of modern pipe manufacturing processes, pipe was manufactured via the labor-intensive bell and tong method. In this method, sheets of steel, called skelp, were heated until malleable; and pulled via tongs, over a cone-shaped device, called a bell. It was determined that after pulling the first 21’ over the bell, the skelp started to cool to the point that a good, strong weld was not achieved. The 21’ length stuck, though today, most seamless pipe, and larger ERW pipe is sold in random lengths that range from 17’-24’.
A removable metal plate over a machine part, such as a valve.
A bonnet, which is connected, to a valve body with bolts or nuts with studs.
A valve construction in which the bonnet is held on by a union nut with threads on the body.
A dense mass of material that obstructs a passage.
A long and thin supportive or main section of something
A part of the flow passageway that is used in conjunction with the CLOSURE MEMBER to modify the rate of flow through the valve.
Typically graphite or PTFE is used due to its low friction coefficient. Enviro-seal applications also have the availability of constant applied force (live-load) packing. While more complex, it allows for constant packing force load throughout the life of the packing material. This packing helps meet contemporary environmental laws.
A check valve that uses a flexing rubber diaphragm positioned to create a normally-closed valve. Pressure on the upstream side must be greater than the pressure on the downstream side by a certain amount, known as the pressure differential, for the check valve to open allowing flow. Once positive pressure stops, the diaphragm automatically flexes back to its original closed position
A check valve in which the closure element is a hinged clapper which swings or rotates open and close about a supporting shaft to prevent back-flow.
A check valve in which the disc, can be lifted up off its seat by higher pressure of upstream fluid to allow flow to the outlet side. A guide keeps motion of the disc on a vertical line, so the valve can later reseat. When the pressure is no longer higher, gravity or higher downstream pressure will cause the disc to lower onto its seat, shutting the valve to stop back-flow.
A check valve that generally has a spring that will ‘lift’ when there is pressure on the upstream side of the valve. When the pressure going through the valve goes below the cracking pressure, the spring will close the valve to prevent back-flow in the process.
A type of valve having a small port and a threaded, needle-shaped plunger. It allows precise regulation of flow, although it is generally only capable of relatively low flow rates.
A gate valve closure member that has a narrow parallel gate with a shaped edge for cutting through glutinous media or slurries.
Provides a visual indication of valve position because the stem is attached to the gate such that the gate and stem rise and lower together as the valve is operated
Non-rising stem valves may have a pointer threaded onto the upper end of the stem to indicate valve position, since the gate travels up or down the stem on the threads without raising or lowering of the stem.
Control valves are valves used to control conditions such as flow, pressure, temperature, and liquid level by fully or partially opening or closing.
Move along or out steadily and continuously in a current or stream.
Valves that are washer less and require only a quarter turn of the valve handle to be completely open or closed.
Triple eccentric (offset) Design prevents galling and scratches between the metal seat and the metal disc. The only time where the seal comes into contact with the seat is at the point of complete closure.
The wafer style butterfly valve is designed to maintain a seal against bi-directional pressure differential to prevent any backflow in systems designed for unidirectional flow.
Lug-style valves have threaded inserts at both sides of the valve body. This allows them to be installed into a system using two sets of bolts and no nuts. The valve is installed between two flanges using a separate set of bolts for each flange. This setup permits either side of the piping system to be disconnected without disturbing the other side.
An object used to fasten (something) in position with a pin, wedge, or bolt.
A material used to prevent leakage or seepage, as around a pipe joint.
A small chamber in which an annular packing is compressed around a reciprocating or rotating rod or shaft to form a seal
An annular steel ring attached to the upper end of a deflecting wedge, having a slightly smaller diameter than that of the borehole in which the wedge is inserted, serving as a stabilizing ring to hold and center the wedge in the borehole. Also called rose ring
A term used to describe valve trim with an elastomeric or plastic material used either in the VALVE PLUG or SEAT RING to provide tight shutoff with a minimal amount of actuator force
A device that supports, guides, and reduces the friction of motion between fixed and moving machine parts
Provide positive mechanical attachment of disc to shaft
A fastener that holds components or assemblies onto a shaft or in a housing/bore when installed in a groove.
A gasket in the form of a ring with a circular cross section, typically made of pliable material, used to seal connections
Reactive or functioning or allowing movement in two usually opposite directions.
End of line duty in either direction to the full rating pressure of the piping system.
Or poly-chloroprene is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene. Neoprene exhibits good chemical stability, and maintains flexibility over a wide temperature range.
Inert, synthetic compounds with a variety of forms and uses. Typically heat-resistant and rubber-like, they are used in sealants, adhesives, lubricants, medical applications, cooking utensils, and insulation.
This form of synthetic rubber is unusual in being generally resistant to oil, fuel, and other chemicals (the more nitrile within the polymer, the higher the resistance to oils but the lower the flexibility of the material).
A metal guard plate connected to a limit switch that prevents damage to the switch. Stop plates keep limit switches from being forced beyond their travel limit.
Water vapor in equilibrium with liquid water at or above the normal boiling point
The flow control orifice and seat that is an integral part of the valve body or cage. The seat is machined directly out of the valve body and is normally not replaceable without replacing the body itself – although some can be repaired by welding and re-machining.
Polymer, Textile and Fiber Engineering
Reinforced Tetrafluoroethylene (reinforced teflon)
Pounds per Square Inch
Ethylene propylene diene monomer (M class / Rubber)
Gallons per minute
Water, oil & gas
American Society for Testing and Materials
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Weldable Cast B-Grade Carbon Steel
Manufacturers Standardization Society
American Petroleum Institute
Steam Working Pressure
Outside stem & yoke
Cold Working Pressure
Gate Valves are used as isolation valves in water, oil, gas, chemical, or other fluid piping systems.
In valves, double dead end service means no flow through. When the valve is not in service the fluid in the pipe does not move. This can be problematic depending on the fluid used, as some fluids require movement. Settling, reactive fluids pose hazards, including bacterial build up, which can lead to contamination. Lug-style butterfly valves are most commonly used for this application due to its reduced pressure rating.
A triple offset butterfly valve differs from a double offset butterfly valve in that it offers a special sealing mechanism, providing a bubble tight shut off due to its additional offset. The friction caused between the disc and seat is minimized. The unique feature of this design is that it provides for low torque, broad sealing, and tight shut off. The valve uses less weight, less cost, and less space, and maintains zero friction and leakage. This valve is functionally reliable and is used in most applications, especially those involving high cycle frequency, high pressure and extreme temperatures.
A double offset valve provides excellent controllability, bubble tight shut off, greater seat life and smooth operation. The first offset is the shaft location behind disc as opposed to in the middle allowing for a continuous sealing surface on the disc. The second offset refers to shaft location, typically towards one side of the disc.
Check valves, or non-return valves, allow water or other material to flow in only one direction.
Globe Valves are used primarily as a lower-cost option for balancing a piping system. The conical plug found in a glove valve does a good job of regulating flow.
A Butterfly Valve is used to control the flow of material through a circular pipe or tube. Typically the material is air, gas, steam, or liquid. Certain dry materials may also be handled through a butterfly valve. Simply, a butterfly valve consists of a circular disc with its pivot axis at right angles to the direction material is flowing. The valve is made up of a body, seat, disc, stem, and actuator. Each component part is available in a variety of materials called “trim features.” Properly combining trim features to address material handled and environment is important in selecting the correct model valve for its intended service.
The Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act is a federal law that amends the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and sets new, lower standards for the amount of lead permissible in plumbing products that come into contact with potable (drinkable) water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has primary responsibility for interpreting the SDWA with individual states using health or plumbing codes or other standards consistent with the SDWA and EPA regulations to enforce those standards.
The quarter-turn valves have the advantage of quick shut-off of the flow. Many multi-turn valves are of a more robust design than comparable quarter-turn valves. Multi-turn valves close slowly, reducing the chance of water hammer.
High performance butterfly valves have carbon steel bodies, adjustable packing, offset disc design, PTFE seats, and are sometimes suitable for steam service. Standard resilient (rubber) seated butterfly valves do not have those features, but are less costly and perform well in many applications.
Valves are mechanical devices that control the flow and pressure within a system or process. They are essential components of a piping system that conveys liquids, gases or vapors. Different types of Valves are available: gate, globe, plug, ball, butterfly, check, diaphragm, pinch, pressure relief, and control Valves. Each of these types has a number of models, each with different features and functional capabilities. Some Valves are self-operated while others manually or with an actuator or pneumatic or hydraulic is operated.
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